The engine lubrication system is to distribute oil to the moving parts to reduce friction between surfaces. Lubrication plays a key role in the life expectancy of an automotive engine . If the lubricating system fail, an engine would succumb to overheating and seizing very quickly. An oil pump is located on the bottom of the engine. The oil is pulled through a strainer, by the oil pump, removing larger contaminants from the mass of the fluid. The oil then forced through an oil filter under pressure to the main bearings and the oil pressure gauge. It is important to note that not all filters perform the same. A filter’s ability to remove particles is dependent upon many factors, including the media material (pore size, surface area and depth of filter), the differential pressure across the media, and the flow rate across the media. From the main bearings, the oil passes into drilled passages in the crankshaft and the big-end bearings of the connecting rod. The oil fling dispersed by the rotating crankshaft lubricates the cylinder walls and piston-pin bearings. The excess oil is scraped off by the scraper rings on the piston. The engine oil also lubricates camshaft bearings and the timing chain or gears on the camshaft drive. The excess oil in the system then drains back to the sump.
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SAE Stands for the Society of Automotive Engineers, based in the U.S.A.The SAE grade specifies the most important parameters for engine oil mainly its viscosity. The SAE viscosity classification defines mainly viscosity limits at high and low temperature for any grade of lubricants. The SAE grade guide us to the right viscosity for different outside temperatures. Grades marked ‘w’ stand for winter are at a temperature below 00C.
API stands for the American Petroleum Institute. This body has specified the performance standards that oils used in road vehicles should meet . For oils to use in passenger car engines, the letters API are followed by a set of two letters such as SM, etc. Service Levels for passenger car oils or ‘S’ indicates for Spark Ignition Engine. These specified performance levels have evolved through the years, from API SA to SN,