General Information

Friction Overview to understand lubrication:
In order to understand lubrication, friction must primarily be understood in detail, because whenever there is friction, only lubrication will exist.
The force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other is defined as friction.

Friction is a force in Layman’s terms that resists one surface from sliding or rolling over another. Friction can therefore be said to occur only when two surfaces are in relative motion, such as when a crankshaft is rotating in a log bearing or when a ball bearing is rolling along its raceway.

Friction Types
Dry friction is a force which in contact opposes the relative lateral movement of two solid surfaces.

The friction between layers of a viscous fluid moving relative to each other is described by fluid friction.

The friction between the two surfaces converts kinetic energy (work) into thermal energy when surfaces in contact move relative to each other (Heat). As illustrated by the use of friction created by rubbing pieces of wood together to start a fire, this property can have dramatic consequences. Whenever motion occurs with friction, kinetic energy is converted to thermal energy, for instance when a viscous fluid is stirred.

Wear, which may lead to performance degradation or damage to components, can be another important consequence of many types of friction. A component of the science of tribology is friction.
Friction is not a fundamental force itself. A combination of inter-surface adhesion, surface roughness, surface deformation, and surface contamination gives rise to dry friction. The complexity of these interactions renders it impractical to calculate friction from first principles and requires the use of empirical methods for analysis and the development of theory.

Friction coefficient:
The friction coefficient, μ, is a measure of the quantity of friction between two surfaces. A low coefficient of friction value indicates that when the coefficient of friction is high, the force required for sliding to occur is less than the force required. The value of the friction coefficient is given by
μ= frictional strength, (F)normal force (N)

Transposing gives: frictional force = µ × normal force,

F=μN

The coefficient of friction is the ratio of a force to a force, and hence has no units. Typical values for the coefficient of friction when sliding is occurring, i.e. the dynamic coefficient of friction are:

for polished oiled metal surfaces < 0.1

for glass on glass = 0.4

for rubber on tarmac = 1.0

Factors Causing Friction
Popular friction-influencing factors are:
Surface Finish The friction coefficient can be significantly influenced by the number, roughness and even the directional contact points of the asperities on the surfaces.

Temperature: friction may be caused by ambient and operating temperature. For example, in some applications, temperature is a critical element in whether an anti-wear or EP additive will be successful.
Operational Load-Friction varies with load directly. The friction coefficient would be significantly increased by a load exceeding the built volume.

• Relative Speed — Increasing the speed beyond that which is safely defined would significantly increase friction.
Nature of Relative Motion between Surfaces The coefficient of friction can be influenced by sliding motion versus rolling motion.

Lubricant characteristics These characteristics are the base oil, the base oil viscosity and the additives for the unique formulation mixed with the base oil.
The challenge is to reduce the friction coefficient as much as possible by either eliminating, or at the very least controlling, the factors that may have an adverse effect on the surface in relative motion.

Friction Reduction
Several ways to minimize friction are available:

  1. The use of self-sacrificing bearing surfaces such as low shear materials, of which lead/copper journal bearings are an example.
  2. Replace sliding friction with friction of rolling components, such as using rolling element bearings.
  3. Improve overall lubrication either by adjusting viscosity, using different or enhanced additives or by using various lubricants on their own, i.e. synthetics, solids, etc.

Understanding Lubrication & Lubricants:

Lubrication is the process of using a lubricant to reduce friction between two sliding surfaces of metallic origin. Adequate lubrication allows smooth, continuous operation of machine elements, reduces the rate of wear, and prevents excessive stresses or seizures at bearings. When lubrication breaks down, components can rub destructively against each other, causing heat, local welding, destructive damage and failure.

Lubrication Forms
There are three forms of lubrication that are different: boundary, mixed and full film. Each type is different, but to protect against wear, they all depend on a lubricant and the additives inside the oils.
It is possible to break down full-film lubrication into two forms: hydrodynamic and elastohydrodynamic.

Elastohydrodynamic lubrication is similar but occurs when the surfaces are in a rolling motion (relative to each other). The film layer in elastohydrodynamic conditions is much thinner than that of hydrodynamic lubrication, and the pressure on the film is greater. It is called elastohydrodynamic because the film elastically deforms the rolling surface to lubricate it.

Where there are frequent starts and stops, and where shock-loading conditions are present, boundary lubrication is found. Some oils have intense pressure (EP) or anti-wear (AW) additives to help protect surfaces in the event that, due to velocity, load or other factors, full films can not be achieved.

These additives adhere to the surfaces of metal and form a sacrificial layer protecting the metal from wear. When the two surfaces contact in such a way that only the EP or AW layer is all that protects them, boundary lubrication occurs. As it induces high friction, heat and other undesirable results, this is not ideal.

Mixed lubrication is a cross between hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication. Although a lubricating layer is separating the bulk of the surfaces, the asperities still make contact with each other. Here is where the additives come into play again.

With a better understanding of this process, it should be easier to define what lubrication actually is. It is a process of either separating surfaces or protecting them in a manner to reduce friction, heat, wear and energy consumption. This can be accomplished by using oils, greases, gases or other fluids.

What is Lubricant ?

lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move. It may also have the function of transmitting forces, transporting foreign particles, or heating or cooling the surfaces. The property of reducing friction is known as lubricity.

History:
The Continuous Oil Refining Company was set up by American John Ellis on September 6, 1866. Dr. Ellis was disappointed to find no actual therapeutic benefit when researching the possible healing powers of crude oil, but was fascinated by its potential lubricating properties. He finally left medical practice to devote his time to the production of a high-viscosity, all-petroleum lubricant for steam engines, which used inefficient petroleum and animal and vegetable fat combinations at the time. When he discovered oil that worked efficiently at high temperatures, he made his breakthrough. Most scientists around the world make many more inventions, recent environmental and performance factors are primarily considered to select lubricants, and industry stakeholders such as chemists, engineers, the oil refinery industry, and metallurgists continue research to improve the performance of lubricating products.

Benefits of using Lubricants:

 Reduced friction

Lubricant forms an oil film on the surface of metals, converting solid friction into liquid friction to reduce friction, which is the most common and essential function of lubricants. Reduced friction prevents heating and abrasion on the friction surface.

 Cooling

Friction certainly causes heating on the area and more heat is produced if metals rub against each other. Therefore the heat needs to be absorbed or released; otherwise the system is destroyed or deformed. To prevent it, lubricants are applied. Especially cooling is critical to rolling oils, cutting oils, and lubricating oils used in an internal combustion engine.

 Load balancing

Components like gear or bearing are limitedly contacted on a certain line or surface, so load can be increased in a moment, making systems at risk for being destroyed and attached to each other. Therefore the application of lubricant protects systems against increased load by forming an oil film to disperse load in the film.

 Cleaning

Long-term use of systems may lead to corrosion or aging, producing foreign substances. In case of using hydraulic oil and gear oil, sediments accumulate such as sludge from deterioration. Especially an internal combustion engine generates too much soot, so that it is likely to shorten the life of systems and make them fail to work properly. Therefore lubricant itself cleans out foreign substances like soap.

 Sealing

Sealing is to close the macro-gap between systems. Sealing the space between pistons and cylinders in the internal combustion engines or air compressors blocks the leakage of combustion gas and the inflow of external foreign substances to maintain the defined internal pressure and protect the system. Especially in the hydraulic system, lubricants itself serve to prevent the leakage by creating a hydraulic film.

 Rust prevention

Metals produce rust when contacting water and oxygen. However, rust formation can be controlled and the system lifetime is extended if the surface of metals is coated with lubricating film.

Properties of Lubricants:

 Viscosity

Viscosity is used to measure how thick and sticky the fluid is under certain conditions, which is one of the most important factors to be considered when selecting lubricants. Viscosity is expressed in *cSt or SUS. It is understood that a high viscosity means more thick and sticky. Viscosity is not used to determine the quality of oil. Thus, choosing the right viscosity for each application is important.
* cSt (Centistoke), SUS (Saybolt Universal Viscosity)

 Viscosity Index

Viscosity Index (VI) indicates a correlation between the viscosity of lubricants and temperature. Higher VI value implies little viscosity change according to the variation of temperature. Higher VI is more temperature stable, so that the life of oil is prolonged and usage is diversified.

 Flash Point & Fire Point

Flash point is the lowest temperature at which the vapor produced by continuous heating of lubricants can be ignited. Fire point is the lowest temperature at which not momentary ignition but continuous ignition is possible. Generally the fire point is higher than the flash point by 20-30 degrees and lubricants cannot be used in the environment higher than the fire point.

 Pour Point

If the temperature of a lubricant continues to be lowered, wax is extracted and solidified from it. The temperature right before this phenomenon is the pour point. It does not mean that a lubricant cannot be used in the environment below the pour point. However since this phenomenon may decrease work efficiency, the pour point should be considered especially when selecting engine oil to be used in winter.

 Total ACID Number, TAN

Total ACID Number (TAN) indicates the amount of acid component contained in oil and the amount of KOH required to neutralize the acid component contained in 1 gram of a lubricant is expressed in mg. The more a lubricant is used and the longer the mileage is, the higher acid component is in the lubricant, increasing TAN.

 Total Base Number, TBN

Total Base Number (TBN) indicates the amount of base component contained in oil and the amount of KOH required to neutralize the base component contained in 1 gram of a lubricant is expressed in mg. The longer the mileage is and the higher TAN is, the lower TBN is.

 Oxidation Stability

Oxidation stability is an ability to reduce the lubricant’s rate of oxidation accelerated by high temperature. This property is particularly important to identify the life and storage period of engine oil.

A. Types of Physical State Based Lubricants:

  1. Solid lubricants – Solid lubricants are used where: I the operating conditions are such that the lubricating film cannot be secured by the use of lubricating oils or greases; (ii) the contamination of lubricating oil or grease (by the entry of dust or grain particles) is unacceptable; (iii) the operating temperature or load is too high, even for semi-solids.
  2. Graphite and molybdenum disulphide are the two most common solid lubricants employed. A multitude of flat plates, one atom thick, consist of graphite, which are held together by only weak bonds, so that the force to shear the crystals parallel to the layers is small. Consequently, the parallel layers slide readily over each other. Mixed solid lubricants are usually certain organic substances.
  3. Molybdenum disulphide, on the other hand, has a structure like a sandwich in which a layer of a Mo atom is located between two layers of S atoms. Poor interlaminar attraction in a direction parallel to the layers is responsible for low shear strength. Lubricants for solids are used either in dry powder or in a mixture of water or oil. The solids in the surfaces of moving components fill up the low spots. The usual coefficient of friction between solid lubricants is between 0.005 and 0.01.

Uses: As lubricant in air-compressors, lathes, general machine-shop works, foodstuffs industry, railway track-joints, open gears, chains, cast iron bearings, internal combustion engine, etc. (b) Molybdenum disulphide possesses very low coefficient of friction and is stable in air up to 400oC. Its fine powder may be sprinkled on surfaces sliding at high velocities, when it fills low spots in metal surfaces, forming its film. It is also used along with solvents and in greases. Besides the more important graphite and molybdenum disulphide, other substances like soapstone, talc, mica, etc., are also used as solid lubricants.

2. Semi-solid Lubricants – Lubricating grease is a semi – solid, consisting of a soap dispersed throughout liquid lubricating oil. The liquid lubricant may be petroleum oil or even synthetic oil and it may contain any of the additives for specific requirements. Greases are prepared by saponification of fat (such as tallow or fatty acid) with alkali (like lime, caustic soda, etc.), followed by adding hot lubricating oil while  under agitation. The total amount of

mineral oil added determines the consistency of the finished grease. The structure of lubricating greases is that of a gel. Soaps are gelling agents, which give an interconnected structure (held together by intermolecular forces) containing the added oil. At high temperatures, the soap dissolves in the oil, whereupon the interconnected structures cease to exist and the grease liquefies. Consistency of greases may vary from a heavy viscous liquid to the of a stiff solid mass. To improve the heat-resistance of grease, inorganic solid thickening agents (like finely divided clay, bentonite, colloidal silica, carbon black, etc.) are added.

 Greases have higher shear or frictional resistance than oils and, therefore, can support much heavier loads at lower speeds. They also do not require as much attention unlike the lubricating liquids. But greases have a tendency to separate into oils and soaps.

Grease are used : (i) in situations where oil cannot remain in place, due to high load, low speed, intermittent operation, sudden jerks, etc. e.g. rail axle boxes,  (ii) in bearing and gears that work at high temperatures ; (iii) in situations where bearing needs to be sealed against entry of dust, dirt, grit or moisture, because greases are less liable to contamination by these ; (iv) in situations where dripping or spurting of oil is undesirable, because unlike oils, greases if used do not splash or drip over articles being prepared by the machine. For example,  in machines preparing paper, textiles, edible articles, etc.

The main function of soap is thickening agent so that grease sticks firmly to the metal surfaces. However, the nature of the soap decides: (a) the temperature up to which the grease can be used; (b) its consistency; (c) Its water and oxidation resistance. So, greases are classified after the soap used in their manufacture. Important greases are: (i) Calcium-based greases or cup-greases are emulsions of petroleum oils with calcium soaps. They are, generally, prepared by adding requisite amount of calcium hydroxide to hot oil (like tallow) while under agitation. These greases are the cheapest and most commonly used. They are insoluble in water, so water resistant. However, they are satisfactory for use at low temperatures, because above 80oC, oil and soap begins to separate out.

(ii) Soda-base greases are petroleum oils, thickened by mixing sodium soaps. They are not water resistant, because the sodium soap content is soluble in water. However, they can be used up to 175oC. They are suitable for use in ball bearings, where the lubricant gets heated due to friction.

(iii) Lithium-based greases are petroleum oils, thickened by mixing lithium soaps. They are water-resistant and suitable for use at low temperatures [up to 15oC] only.

(iv) Axle greases are very cheap resin greases, prepared by adding lime (or any heavy metal hydroxide) to resin and fatty oils. The mixture is thoroughly mixed and allowed to stand, when grease floats as stiff mass. Filters (like talc and mica) are also added to them. They are water-resistant and suitable for less delicate equipments working under high loads and at low speeds. Besides the above, there are greases prepared by dispersing solids (like graphite, soapstone) in mineral oil. These are mostly used in rail axle boxes, machine bearings, tractors rollers, wires ropes etc.

Liquid lubricants – By offering a continuous fluid film between them, lubricating oils reduce friction and wear between two moving/sliding metallic surfaces. They also function as: (a) a cooling medium; (b) a sealing agent; and (c) a preventer of corrosion. Good lubricating oil must have the following characteristics: (a) low pressure (or high boiling point), (b) sufficient viscosity for specific service conditions.

Uses: Liquid lubricants are preferably usedin most of cases of general machining , Engines , Hydraulics systems and many more.

B. Types of lubricants based on applications:

Lubricants are largely used for automobiles, heavy industries, industries etc. Categorized 03 primary verticals based on that industry drives

Automotive LubricantsIndustrial LubricantsMetal working fluids
    Engine oils – Diesel engine oils / Gasoline engine oils. Automatic transmission fluids Automotive gear oils Automotive Greases Radiator coolants Wet brake oilsHydraulic Oils Machine Oils Industrial Gear Oils Turbine Oils Circulating Oils Compressor Oils Industrial GreasesCutting Oils – Synthetic/Semi synthetic/ Neat Heat treatment oils / Quenching oils Rust preventives – oil base/Solvent base Metal cleaners – Solvent base/ water base    
 

Automotive Lubricants: The vertical that improves the automotive industry’s diverse and critical requirements.
Industrial lubricants: the vertical one that drives the industrial segment by offering techno commercial advantages.
Metal working fluids: These are super specialty lubricants which, with the latest developments on metal surface applications, reduce operating costs.

Lubricants for Automotive:

  1. Oils for engines—
    Motor oil is one of several compounds composed of base oils strengthened with different additives, including anti-wear additives, detergents, dispersants, and viscosity index improvers for multi-grade oils. For the lubrication of internal combustion engines, motor oil is used. The main function of motor oil is to reduce friction and wear on moving parts and to clean the engine from sludge (one of the functions of dispersants) and varnish (detergents). It also neutralizes acids that originate from fuel and from oxidation of the lubricant (detergents), improves sealing of piston rings, and cools the engine by carrying heat away from moving parts.

Motor oils are now combined in different amounts using base oils consisting of petroleum-based hydrocarbons, polyalphaolefins (PAO) or their mixtures, often up to 20 percent by weight of esters for better additive dissolution.

Non-vehicle motor oils

An example is lubricating oil for four-stroke or four-cycle internal combustion engines such as those used in portable electricity generators and “walk behind” lawn mowers. Another example is two-stroke oil for lubrication of two-stroke or two-cycle internal combustion engines found in snow blowers, chain saws, model airplanes, gasoline-powered gardening equipment like hedge trimmers, leaf blowers and soil cultivators. Often, these motors are not exposed to as wide of service temperature ranges as in vehicles, so these oils may be single viscosity oils.

Viscosity grades SAE J300

SAE J300 is a standard that defines the viscometric properties of mono- and multigrade engine oils, maintained by SAE International.

The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has established a numerical code system for grading motor oils according to their viscosity characteristics. The original viscosity grades were all mono-grades, e.g. a typical engine oil was a SAE 30. This is because all oils thin when heated, so to get the right film thickness at operating temperatures oil manufacturers needed to start with a thick oil.

Classification by viscosity

Single Grade (Mono Grade)

The products of grades expressed in a single number such as SAE 10W and SAE 30 and viscosity can be identified according to the viscosity grades in SAE Table below.

SAE J300Low-Temperature(ºC)Low-Temperature(ºC)Low-Shear-RateHigh-Shear-Rate
Viscosity
Cranking ViscosityPumping ViscosityKinematic Viscosity(mPa.s@150ºC, Min)
(mPa.s, Max)(mPa.s, Max)(cSt@100ºC) 
Test MethodASTM D5393ASTM D4684ASTM D445ASTM D4683
0W6,200 at – 3560,000 at – 403.8 ~
5W6,600 at – 3060,000 at – 353.8 ~
10W7,000 at – 2560,000 at – 304.1 ~
15W7,000 at – 2060,000 at – 255.6 ~
20W9,500 at – 1560,000 at – 205.6 ~
25W13,000 at – 1060,000 at – 159.3 ~
84.0 ~ 6.11.7
125.0 ~ 7.12
166.1 ~ 8.22.3
206.9 ~ 9.32.6
309.3 ~ 12.52.9
4012.5 ~ 16.33.5 (0W, 5W, 10W)
4012.5 ~ 16.33.7
5016.3 ~ 21.93.7
6021.9 ~ 26.13.7

The Multi Grade
Grade products are represented in two types of numbers, such as SAE 5W30 and SAE 10W40, indicating that both of the two SAE grades defined in the viscosity tables are satisfied.
The improvement in viscosity of high-temperature multi-grade lubricating oils is smaller than that of single-grade lubricating oils, providing economic benefits. In order to increase the fuel efficiency of the internal combustion engine, multi-grade lubricating oils are more liquid at low temperatures than single-grade lubricating oils. Many multi-grade oils also have better wear resistance than single-grade oils, increasing the life of an internal combustion engine component.

Classification by Performance
The American Petroleum Institute (API) officially recognized engine oil quality requirements that fit each engine after the proliferation of automobiles in the 1900s and expressed them in signs that are mainly known as gasoline and diesel. In order to differentiate their grades, gasoline is marked in S (service category) and diesel is marked in C (commercial category), then A, B, C, D and so on are added. Since the new engine models under tighter regulations are more required to function in tougher conditions, they comply with more stringent regulations than previous grades.

Gasoline Engine OilDiesel Engine Oil
SN PLUS2018CK-42016
SN2011FA-42016
SM2004CJ-42007
SL2001CI-42002
SJ1996CH-41998
SH1993CG-41995
SG1989CF/CF-21994
SF1980CF-41990
SE1972CD-Ⅱ1985
SD1968CE1984
SC1964CC1961
SB1930CD1955
SA1900CB1949
CA1900

Standards:
American Institute for Petroleum (API)
Standards from the American Petroleum Institute (API) promote tested, sound engineering and working practices and safe, interchangeable equipment and materials from drill bits to protection of the environment. Manuals, norms, specifications, recommended procedures, bulletins, recommendations and technical reports are included.

API standards allow you to:

  • Improve operational excellence
  • Ensure compliance and safe practices
  • Mitigate risks in equipment failure

ILSAC

The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) also has standards for motor oil. Introduced in 2004, GF-4 applies to SAE 0W-20, 5W-20, 0W-30, 5W-30, and 10W-30 viscosity grade oils. In general, ILSAC works with API in creating the newest gasoline oil

ACEA

The ACEA (Association des Constructeurs Européens d’Automobiles) performance/quality classifications A3/A5 tests used in Europe are arguably more stringent than the API and ILSAC standards. CEC (The Co-ordinating European Council) is the development body for fuel and lubricant testing in Europe and beyond, setting the standards via their European Industry groups; ACEA, ATIEL, ATC and CONCAWE.

Popular categories include A3/B3 and A3/B4 which are defined as “Stable, stay-in-grade Engine Oil intended for use in Passenger Car & Light Duty Van Gasoline& Diesel Engines with extended drain intervals” A3/B5 is suitable only for engines designed to use low viscosities. Category C oils are designated for use with catalysts and particulate filters while Category E is for heavy duty diesel. For four-stroke gasoline engines, the JASO T904 standard is used, and is particularly relevant to motorcycle engines. The JASO T904-MA and MA2 standards are designed to distinguish oils that are approved for wet clutch use, with MA2 lubricants delivering higher friction performance. The JASO T904-MB standard denotes oils not suitable for wet clutch use, and are therefore used in scooters equipped with continuously variable transmissions. The addition of friction modifiers to JASO MB oils can contribute to greater fuel economy in these applications.

Lubricant Ingredients:
Typically, 90 percent of base oil (most often petroleum fractions, called mineral oils) and less than 10 percent of additives are found in lubricants. Sometimes, vegetable oils or synthetic liquids are used as base oils, such as hydrogenated polyolefins, esters, silicones, fluorocarbons and many others.

Powders (dry graphite, PTFE, molybdenum disulphide, tungsten disulphide, etc.), PTFE tape used in plumbing, air cushioning and others include non-liquid lubricants. Dry lubricants such as graphite, molybdenum disulphide and tungsten disulphide also offer lubrication higher than liquid at temperatures (up to 350 °C) and oil-based lubricants can operate at temperatures (up to 350 °C). Limited interest in the low friction properties of compacted oxide glaze layers formed in metallic sliding systems at several hundred degrees Celsius has been shown, but due to their physically unstable nature, practical use is still many years away.

For the manufacture of products, including lubricating greases, motor oil and metal processing fluids, base oils are used. Various products require various compositions and properties in the oil. The viscosity of the liquid at different temperatures is one of the most important factors.

All over the globe, there are large numbers of crude oils that are used to produce base oils. A type of paraffinic crude oil is the most common one, although there are also naphthenic crude oils that create products at low temperatures with better solubility and very good properties.

In order to meet the quality requirements for the end products in terms of, for example, friction and cleaning properties, chemical substances (additives) are added to the base oil.

Classifying the base oils
Group I –
The least refined type that Solvent Refining produces. It usually consists of petroleum base oils that are conventional. In the 1960s, an enhancement called hydro-treatment to the refining process made this base oil more stable, less reactive, and longer lasting than the previous base oils.

Group II –
A better grade of petroleum base oil that Hydrocracking can partially produce. All impurities leading to a clearer color will be removed from the oil.
Group II is defined by the API as “base stocks contain greater than or equal to 90 percent saturates and less than or equal to 0.03 percent sulfur and have a viscosity index greater than or equal to 80 and less than 120”.

Performance Additives – Below list of metal protective & performance additives with their purpose of use and function

SURFACE PROTECTIVE ADDITIVES
ENGINE LUBRICANTS
ADDITIVE TYPEPURPOSETYPICAL COMPOUNDSFUNCTIONS
Anti-Wear AgentReduce friction and wear, and prevent scoring and seizureZinc dithiophosphates, organic phosphates and acid phosphates; organic sulphur and chlorine compounds; sulphurized fats, sulfides and disulfidesChemical reaction with the metal surface to form a film with lower shear strength than the metal, thereby preventing metal-to-metal contact
Corrosion & Rust InhibitorPrevent corrosion and rusting of metal parts in contact with the lubricantZinc dithiophosphates, metal phenolates, basic metal sulfonates, fatty acids and aminesPreferential adsorption of polar constituent on metal surface to provide a protective film and/or neutralization of corrosive acids
DetergentKeep surfaces free of deposits and neutralize corrosive acidsMetallo-organic compounds of barium, calcium and magnesium phenolates, phosphates and sulfonatesChemical reaction with sludge and varnish precursors to neutralize them and keep them soluble
DispersantKeep insoluble soot dispersed in the lubricantPolymeric alkylthiophosphonates and alkylsuccinimides, organic complexes containing nitrogen compoundsContaminants are bonded by polar attraction to dispersant molecules, prevented from agglomerating and kept in suspension due to solubility of dispersant
Friction ModifierAlter coefficient of frictionOrganic fatty acids and amines, lard oil, high molecular weight organic phosphorus and phosphoric acid estersPreferential adsorption of surface-active materials
PERFORMANCE ADDITIVES
ENGINE LUBRICANTS
Pour Point DepressantEnable lubricant to flow at low temperaturesAlkylated naphthalene and phenolic polymers, polymethacrylatesModify wax crystal formation to reduce interlocking
Seal Swell AgentSwell elastomeric sealsOrganic phosphates, aromatics, halogenated hydrocarbonsChemical reaction with elastomer to cause slight swell
Viscosity ImproverReduce the rate of viscosity change with temperaturePolymers and copolymers of methacrylates, butadiene olefins and alkylated styrenesPolymers expand with increasing temperature to counteract oil thinning
LUBRICANT PROTECTIVE ADDITIVES
ENGINE LUBRICANTS
Anti-FoamingPrevent lubricant from forming a persistent foamSilicone polymers and organic copolymersReduce surface tension to speed collapse of foam
Anti-OxidantRetard oxidative decompositionZinc dithiophosphates, hindered phenols, aromatic amines, sulphurized phenolsDecompose peroxides and terminate free-radical reactions
Metal DeactivatorReduce catalytic effect of metals on oxidation rateOrganic complexes containing nitrogen or sulphur, amines, sulphides and phosphitesForm inactive film on metal surfaces by complexing with metallic ions

Diesel & Gasoline Engine Oils | Viscosity & Performance levels at a glance:

Any oil is specified by two descriptions, its viscosity and its performance levels. For any engine, the appropriate viscosity to be used depends on lowest start-up temperature and highest ambient temperature experienced, and can usually be determined from the operator’s manual. The engine manufacturer will produce a chart of recommended engine oil viscosity grades for the temperature conditions likely to be encountered.

Engine oils with different viscosity grades and their operating temperature range.

From the chart above we can see that lower SAE “W” grades are specified for start-up at lower temperatures, and higher “non-W” grades are recommended for operation at higher ambient temperatures. 

How is gasoline motor oil classified?

The American Petroleum Institute (API) developed a classification system to identify oils formulated to meet the different operating requirements of gasoline and diesel engines.

The API system has two general categories: S-series and C-series.

The S-series service classification emphasizes oil properties critical to gasoline engines.

When oil passes a series of both bench tests and engine tests (API Sequence tests), it can be sold bearing the applicable API service classification.

The classifications progress alphabetically as the level of lubricant performance increases. Each classification replaces those before it. Oils meeting the latest API classification, API SP, may be used in any engine calling for it or a previous API specification unless otherwise specified.

The API SP category is the most recent classification, replacing those before it. SP oils are designed to provide…

  • Improved oxidation resistance
  • Deposit protection
  • Maximum fuel economy
  • Emissions-system performance
  • Resistance to a new type of engine knock called low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI)

How is diesel engine oil classified?

C-series classifications pertain to diesel engines and include those shown below.

Not all C-series classifications supersede one another. Note the FA-4 classification, which pertains only to some 2017 and newer diesel engines. The FA-4 classification was introduced primarily to help maximize fuel economy in over-the-road trucks.

Putting it all together motor oil is more than a commodity. It’s a vital part of your engine’s longevity and performance.

As such, it pays in the long run to use the best oil for your vehicle. The initial price of high-quality synthetic motor oil may be more, but the lifetime cost can be far less compared to conventional oil, especially if you practice extended drain intervals.

It is more than a commodity to bring everything together with motor oil. It’s a crucial part of the durability and efficiency of your engine.
As such, it pays to use the right oil for your car in the long run. The initial price of high-quality synthetic motor oil may be higher, but compared to conventional oil, the lifetime cost may be much lower, especially if you practice extended drain intervals.

Role of viscosity modifier in Engine oil formulations-

Viscosity modifiers are produced from long, versatile polymers used in the manufacture of a wide variety of products, including electrical wire coating/insulation, automotive trimming, roofing tiles, coatings, coatings, rubbers and lubricant additives. They become increasingly immune to flow as polymer coils communicate with oil and each other, which means we can add them to oils.

Applications

In multi-grade engine oils, automated transmission fluids, power steering fluids, gear oils, greases, and certain hydraulic fluids, viscosity regulators are used. The most popular use, by far, is for passenger cars and heavy duty trucks. In these applications, over 80 percent of all viscosity modifiers sold worldwide in the lubricant industry are used.

Temperature and shear operating regimes

All engine oils throughout the engine’s operating range must deliver “in-grade” viscosity efficiency. To accomplish this, in both low-shear and high-shear settings, engine oil formulators rely on viscosity modifiers to deliver the necessary viscosity output when exposed to a wide range of lubricant temperatures, from very cold to very hot.

Low temperature/low shear

Viscosity modifiers must provide the necessary viscosity control if low shear is encountered at low temperatures in the oil sump and lines carrying oil from the sump to the engine. Oil that is too dense can cause oil starvation in these conditions.

Low temperature/high shear

High shear is encountered in the engine bearings at low-temperature/high-shear conditions, where high viscosities can result in too much resistance to engine cranking and failure to start the vehicle.

High temperature/low shear

The traditional high-temperature/lowshear measurement is kinematic viscosity at 100°C (kV100C). This defines the oil’s SAE high temperature grade. High temperature, low-shear conditions are seen in leak paths (oil seals, behind piston rings), and a viscosity that is too low can affect oil consumption.

High temperature/high shear

The high-temperature/high-shear (HT/HS) viscosity test which is run using oil heated to 150°C, measures viscosity and indicates the oil film thickness that might be encountered in bearings, cams, etc., under severe high-speed operations. An oil that is too thin under these conditions may not provide the needed lubricant protection, which could result in significant wear in these critical engine parts.

Effects of temperature

In lubricant oil, the use of viscosity modifiers offsets the weak temperature response of base oil alone, which appears to become thinner at high temperatures and thicker at low temperatures. By attenuating increases in viscosity by changes in the size of the polymer itself, a flexible polymer molecule dissolved in a lubricating oil enhances its temperature response.

The polymer coil energy is decreased at low temperatures and it becomes small. Therefore, its effect on the flowing oil is less and its contribution to the viscosity of the oil at a low temperature is negligible. The polymer molecule expands when the oil is heated. A greater volume of the coil impedes the free flow of the oil rather than a small coil, which helps prevent the viscosity from decreasing.

Temporary and permanent viscosity loss

Motor oils are subjected to more intense shearing processes that break down the polymer molecules during normal engine operation and by continuous use, reducing the molecular weight of the oils. This can contribute to the loss of viscosity and a subsequent reduction in the thickness of the oil film.

The polymer coil is approximately spherical in shape under no shear/flow conditions. The flexible polymer coil responds to the velocity gradient within the oil as the oil begins to flow. The coil deforms (becomes elongated) and aligns with the flow direction. The twisted coil hinders the flow of the oil less than the original spherical coil did, and the viscosity observed by the oil falls.

This is known as “shear-thinning” behavior. When the shear stress is removed, the distorted coil resumes its original spherical shape and the oil’s viscosity returns to its original value. This shear thinning is therefore termed “temporary viscosity loss.”

Calculating permanent viscosity loss/shear stability index

The polymer undergoes physical breakage that can not be reversed when the shear is extracted in a permanent viscosity loss scenario. Consequently, the viscosity of the oil is reduced indefinitely. A commonly used test is the Kurt Orbahn Diesel Injector Test to measure permanent shear stability. It tests the continuous reduction of the viscosity of an oil after (commonly) 30 cycles.

The oil’s viscosity falls during the test due to polymer coil breakage. In other words, only that part of the oil’s viscosity, which is contributed by the viscosity modifier polymer, is susceptible to breakage. Neither the base oil nor the additive performance package suffers permanent viscosity loss. Moreover, different viscosity modifier polymers have different shear stability characteristics, depending on the molecular weight and chemical nature of each. Those viscosity modifiers having higher molecular weight have a greater propensity for polymer coil breakage.

A viscosity modifier polymer’s Shear Stability Index (SSI) is defined as its resistance to mechanical degradation (polymer coil breakage) under shearing stress. Example: An oil is formulated with base oil of viscosity 5 centistokes (cSt) and a viscosity modifier is used to increase its viscosity to 15 cSt. The viscosity modifier’s viscosity contribution is therefore 10 cSt. During the shear test, the oil’s viscosity falls to 12 cSt. It has permanently lost 3 cSt of viscosity. The viscosity modifier polymer’s shear stability index (SSI) is therefore 3 cSt (loss) divided by 10 cSt (viscosity modifier contribution), or 30% SSI.

Viscosity modifiers are available across a range of the SSI, and oil formulators choose the appropriate viscosity modifier product that allows them to meet their finished oil performance and marketing needs.

Shear rates in various engine regimes

In various components of the engine, various lubricant shear rates are commonly found. The following graph shows how the shear rate will affect the viscosity contribution of the polymer to typical oil. High operating temperatures and high shear rates also cause viscosity reduction, resulting in lower thicknesses of the oil film.

Ancillary Lubricants-

The automatic transmission, manual gearbox, differential and power steering systems are all lubricated by oil or fluids of various types. Some of these systems don’t have the luxury of an oil filter like the engine uses.

Why do these oils change?
Oil decreases the friction between an engine’s moving parts and helps to minimize heat. Unless these oils are regularly drained and replaced with clean oil, your car’s vital components can wear faster than they should. It accumulates abrasive impurities as oil gets older.

How often should the oil be changed?

Depending on the specific oil, the work it does and the sort of driving you are doing, this can vary. For suggested intervals, you may refer to your vehicle owner’s manual.

Types of Ancillary oils:

  1. Automatic transmission fluids  (ATF) –

It is a type of transmission fluid used in cars with automatic or self-shifting transmissions. To differentiate it from motor oil and other fluids in the engine, it is usually colored red or green.
The fluid is designed for special transmission conditions, such as the operation of the valve, friction of the brake band and the torque converter, as well as the lubrication of the gear. Modern ATF consists of a base oil plus an additive kit containing a broad range of chemical compounds intended to provide the particular ATF specification with the properties necessary. Most ATFs contain some combination of additives, such as anti-wear additives, rust and corrosion inhibitors, that enhance lubricating properties.

Automatic transmission fluids have many performance-enhancing chemicals added to the fluid to meet the demands of each transmission. Some ATF specifications are open to competing brands, such as the common DEXRON specification, where different manufacturers use different chemicals to meet the same performance specification. These products are sold under license from the OEM responsible for establishing the specification. Some vehicle manufacturers will require “genuine” or Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) ATF.

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES (TYPICAL)
Kinematic Viscosity cSt, @ 100ºC7.2 – 7.8
Viscosity Index, Min170
ColourRed
Flash Point, COC, ºC, Min170
Pour Point, ºC, Max-33

Gear EP oils

The service designations of the American Petroleum Institute (API) are based on the kind of service in which components would be used. Manufacturers use the designations to pick lubricants for various gear types and operating conditions.
Although API designations can be very helpful in making general recommendations, to ensure this, manufacturer recommendations should always be consulted.

There are several requirements concerning lubricants for automotive gear. The vehicle and machinery manufacturers, ASTM International, the American Petroleum Institute (API), and the Society for Automotive Engineers (SAE) issue the most applicable axle oil standards; the API and SAE standards are listed below.

Physico chemical properties (Typical)

GEAR EP OILS8090140
Kinematic Viscosity, @ 100ºC, cSt10.5-12.514.5-18.024-33
Viscosity Index979797
Flash Point, (COC) ºC220230248
Pour Point, ºC-21-15-9
Corrosion Copper Strip At 121ºC for 3 Hrs Max222

UTTO oils-

The primary uses for Universal Tractor Transmission Oil (UTTO) are farm tractors and combines, covering applications that have wet brakes, hydraulics and advanced transmissions. 

Additive Requirements

A UTTO must provide:

  ✓ Friction performance for clutches and wet brakes

  ✓ Gear protection for transmissions, axles and final drives

  ✓ Anti-wear protection

  ✓ Hydraulic pump durability

  ✓ Shear stability

  ✓ Oxidation resistance

  ✓ Corrosion protection

  ✓ Low temperature flow performance   

Both of these factors help minimize exhaustion for operators. In order to protect the final drive gears without damaging the soft, yellow metal in the hydraulic pump, it also provides a fine balance of superior anti-wear properties. In axial piston hydraulic pumps, better copper protection prevents corrosion. Pumps do not lose pressure and there is increased efficiency.

Typical propertiesUTTO
Kinematic Viscosity, @ 100ºC, cSt10.0-12.0
Viscosity Index110
Flash Point, (COC) ºC220
Pour Point, ºC-21

Greases –

The characteristic feature of greases is that they have a high initial viscosity, which decreases as shear is applied to give the oil-lubricated bearing an effect of about the same viscosity as the base oil used in the grease. This viscosity adjustment is referred to as shear thinning. Lubricating materials that are simply soft solids or high viscosity liquids are often used to characterize grease, but these materials do not exhibit the shear-thinning properties characteristic of classical grease. Petroleum jellies such as Vaseline, for example, are not necessarily known as grease. Greases are added to mechanisms that are rarely lubricated and where the lubricating oil does not remain in place. To prevent water and incompressible materials from entering, they also serve as sealants. Thanks to their high viscosity, grease-lubricated bearings have higher friction characteristics.

The NLGI consistency number (sometimes called “NLGI grade”) expresses a measure of the relative hardness of a grease used for lubrication, as specified by the standard classification of lubricating grease established by the National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI).

NLGI numberASTM worked (60 strokes)Appearance
penetration at 25 °C
tenths of a millimeter
0445-475fluid
0400-430semi-fluid
0355-385very soft
1310-340soft
2265-295“normal” grease
3220-250firm
4175-205very firm
5130-160hard
685-115very hard

Multipurpose & Long Life Greases

Long life grease is an improved version of the normal multipurpose greases in today’s use. It is a distinctive base carrier that guarantees excellent lubrication over a distinct temperature spectrum. It integrates a lithium-based specially formulated soap system for high performance in automotive wheel bearings. This preserves the structural integrity of the grease over lengthy operating times.

For all automotive equipment, such as passenger cars, trucks, buses, tractors and construction machinery, Long Life grease is recommended for bearings.
Long Life grease gives the automobile wheel bearing full safety and guarantees long and trouble-free operation.

Product Features

Excellent Structural stability even under extended periods of operation

Excellent load bearing capacity for heavy duty application

Improved tackiness

Improved Anti-Wear and Corrosion prevention for bearing protection

Excellent resistance to water and oxidation

However multipurpose greases are applied on Low load carrying capacity vehicles such as Motorcycles, 3 wheelers and 4 wheelers.

Radiator coolants –

Heat exchangers are heat exchangers used for the cooling of internal combustion engines, especially in vehicles, but also in piston-powered aircraft, railway locomotives, motorcycles, stationary power plants or in similar applications.

By circulating a liquid called engine coolant through the engine block, where it is heated, then through a radiator where it loses heat to the atmosphere, and then returned to the engine, internal combustion engines are also cooled. Coolant from the engine is normally water-based, but can be oil as well. To force the engine coolant to circulate, and also for an axial fan, it is common to use a water pump.

  • The product is based on glycol chemistry.
  • Contains carboxylic acids (C8 – C10), neutralized with sodium hydroxide.
  • Boron Free
  • Amine Free
  • Contains fluorescent yellow-green dye.
  • Bio-degradable and environment friendly (being of Carboxylate base and boron free)
  • Exemplary corrosion inhibition of the metal components
  • Superior compatibility to Elastomers (rubber components) used in cooling system
  • Retention of concentration over a good duration, hence nil or negligible consumption (apart from those owing to leakage/ contamination etc.)
  • Low dosage requirement (only @ 5% with DM Water)

FEATURES & BENEFITS

  • Bio-degradable and environment friendly
  • Extended water pump life
  • Maximized cavitation corrosion protection
  • Extended coolant life
  • Improved heat transfer

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES (TYPICAL)

AppearanceBright and Clear
ColourFluorescent Yellow-Green
PH of 5% Solution with Distilled Water9
Specific Gravity, @ 20 °C/20 °C1.15

While water offers the best heat transfer, to provide freeze protection, glycol is often used in engine coolants. The addition of glycol decreases the water’s heat transfer significantly, but freeze protection is important in most climates and applications.
Coolants with identical base fluids are used by almost all engines: a 50/50 combination of ethylene glycol and water.

Vehicle cooling system & coolants:

Like gasoline, the coolant acts as the fundamental function of heat transfer and antifreeze defense. You can need a coolant with specialized additives, a coolant formulated for particular manufacturers, or a coolant optimized for high-speed vehicles, depending on the type of vehicle.

WHAT is COOLANT / ANTIFREEZE?

It is a liquid that is combined with water to help control the engine during high temperatures and used as a cooling medium. As the ambient temperature varies from hot to cold, to maintain an even operating temperature, coolant is circulated in the engine block. Antifreeze does more than just temperature regulation.

WHAT MAKES EACH ANTIFREEZE TYPE DIFFERENT?

To fulfill end user demands, all coolant consists of ethylene glycol-based chemistry with distinct concentration levels. If it’s green, pink or orange, at their root, they’re all the same. It is further strengthened to achieve ideal requirements with rust & corrosion inhibitors, antifoaming agents and coloring pigments, nitrates and nitrides.

How does the coolant function?

The coolant’s primary function is to transfer heat and to prevent damage to the engine caused by freezing or boiling. Heat can only be transferred efficiently with a liquid in the system, so preventing your coolant from freezing or evaporating is vital.
In addition, the vapors produced do not transfer heat well if the coolant boils, which means that the engine metal will actually melt.

Coolant also serves the purpose of protecting metals and non-metallic elastomers (like rubber and plastic parts) in the engine and the cooling circuit.

What are the types of problems caused by using the wrong coolant?

Corrosion and part damage may contribute to long-term effects without the proper coolant in your system. Often they are latent, meaning it takes up to a year to cause a problem with corrosion damage, deposits, and plugging.
This is sometimes misidentified as a radiator malfunction by drivers rather than actually understanding that the wrong coolant has been used. If it ends up badly corroded by a radiator.

How Often Do I Need to Change the Coolant in My Vehicle?

As engine technology advances, the amount of time between coolant changes has been gradually increasing.
Changing the refrigerant every two years was the normal recommendation as recently as two decades ago. Then, a decade or so ago, the period expanded to 5 years. A cooling system is designed to allow up to 10 years in many of today’s new automobiles.

But the one thing that they all have in common is that it is important to protect them. Your vehicle’s OEM does comprehensive testing to decide what fluids should be used in the systems they’ve created, including coolants.

Safe handling of Lubricants-

Typically, as most individuals think about protection, they feel their personal duty to remain safe. This involves the wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE), what places to avoid, what sirens or warnings to be aware of, what the fire or extreme weather plan is, and other related things. Also staff and contractors wear a conspicuous sticker on certain sites.

General Safety

There can be several oil sampling or filling points in difficult-to-reach areas. Guidelines are likely to be in place for how to access such spots properly, such as fall safety for working aloft or how to place a ladder to reach over a piping run. Incorporate the new safety system at your office, from PPE to the fitness, safety and environment (HSE) team for cleanliness and everything else.

Lubrication is used to help move equipment, and moving equipment is hazardous by design. Conduct a systematic survey to analyze occupational risks, such as the layout of the work area, as well as operation hazards such as the specific equipment used and environmental hazards such as combustible dust.

Training

More rigorous safety training would be needed for those who are more directly involved in the implementation of lubrication acts. It will be vital to have precise knowledge of the location and identification of lubricants using the safety data sheet (SDS) software. For sampling and drain/fill innovations, consider including hands-on training sessions.

Any good rules of thumb for when to have training may be for first-hire workers (general safety and specialized work as required), when an employee is changing roles or duties to include further lubrication, or when a process change or implementation is being made, such as implementing a new form of lubrication, using a new piece of lubrication equipment.

Storage

It will go a long way towards keeping your lubrication software healthy by properly storing and containing oils and greases. There is no single correct way to safely store lubricants, although there are many incorrect lubricant storage management methods. Popular variables that contribute to the vulnerability of stored lubricants are as simple as exposure to weather or storing lubricants in high-traffic areas.

The lubricants may also be harmed by exposure to the environment. Damaged oil being pumped through your systems will lead to earlier machine failure and potentially catastrophic failure, which for most staff is much more troubling than spotting a shine of oil going to the environmental drains.

Design your lubricant storage to help prevent spills or leaks by keeping lubricants inside and away from high-traffic areas or pipes that are known to leak or vent, such as steam traps.

Store tools and smaller lubricants like greases in specially designed lockers to prevent fire or contamination. Additional ventilation or atmospheric monitoring may be needed to meet air- quality regulations.

Follow all guidelines established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) concerning the storage of lubricants, including oil breaks, approved drains, stacking and positioning of containers, and fire suppression or ventilation systems. Work closely with your HSE team to ensure any changes  to your lubrication program take these regulations into account.

In the illustration below, you can see many of these safe practices at work. The lights and electrical are rated as explosion-proof, a ventilation system has been installed in the ceiling,

a fire-suppression system is employed, the floor is sealed to prevent seepage from leaks into the ground, and there’s a proper waste-disposal receptacle for rags and other rubbish.

Handling

With estimated toxicity concerns, some common lubricant classification types are mentioned above. Furthermore, all lubricants have been categorized into one of five categories with unique alerts by the American Petroleum Institute (API). Group I lubricants have been reported as having adequate proof of human carcinogenicity.

The carcinogenetic part, also referred to as an aromatic, is called a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). If your facility handles Group I lubricants, make sure to take additional measures to keep unknown team members away, such as large placards or other warning signs.
Similarly, Group II lubricants were reported as having potential animal carcinogenicity.

Greases have a few special safeguards for handling as well. When kept at lower temperatures, these lubricants appear to settle in the tube and may need to be heated prior to application. Grease should not be warmed manually above 75 degrees F and should never be warmed with a flame of any kind. In addition, during application, never carry a grease gun coupler with your hand, and consider using grease guns.

Worksite Monitoring

Often recheck the worksite and equipment after some lubrication operation, such as draining, adjusting or filling. Check for spills or leaks. A seal or cap might not have been properly reinstalled. Dust or debris may have settled on a small spot which during the maintenance task was not noticeable and now presents a potential hazard.

As part of every group cleaning of the facility, include the lubricant storage area to allow staff to become acquainted with the equipment as well as how to use and store tools and lubricants. Not only does this help to keep the environment safe since equipment is properly maintained, but it also guarantees protection for other problems such as falls and trips.

Disposal

Used lubricants awaiting disposal are just as necessary, if not more so, for proper storage as fresh oil. Contaminants or residual additives can be used in used oil and have different chemical properties than fresh oil. Used lubricants are also combined and can have flash points different from the base oil. Store used oil separately from new oil in an area and comply with local HSE laws.

The best technique for used filters is to isolate the metal part for recycling, to compress the media to extract the oil and to dispose of the oil in a tub of used oil. This decreases the chance of fire from discarding the whole filter in the garbage. In proper disposal cans, dispose of greasy or sticky rags and do not allow them to collect or become a threat.

Good practices for engine maintenance :

Change engine oil at regular intervals

All moving parts are kept well lubricated by the engine oil so that wear and tear are minimal. It also traps all the dust, soil, and sediments, holding them away from areas they are not supposed to be. Check every month for oil levels and top up if the amount is low. The oil grade and modification intervals are subject to instructions from the manufacturer.

Keep check on the cooling system

While we have come a long way in terms of the efficacy of a car engine, a lot of energy is lost in the form of heat during combustion. Metals and alloys that are made out of your car engine are not very good friends with heat. Always make sure the tank has enough coolant, as it is very necessary for the dissipation of heat. It is desirable to achieve a 1:1 ratio of coolant and distilled water.

Look for leaks

You can visit the nearest mechanic if the fuel is leaking and have it tested. Under the hood, you can also check to see or detect anything leaking. When looking for leaks, engine oil and antifreeze are fluids that you should look out for.

Don’t keep going on reserve fuel

Sediments that accumulate at the bottom of your tank include petrol. Years of running and there’s probably going to be a layer of shit that shouldn’t penetrate the engine. This junk is forced into the fuel pump by running on low fuel, which could result in a lot of wear. Instead of just hoping it doesn’t hit the engine, top up your tank and save yourself the fuel filter and pump repair/replacement costs.

Check the belts

To keep everything in tune while an engine runs, rubber belts are important ties. It is time to fix them if you hear a squeal coming from under the hood. While they last a long time, you should inspect your belts for cracks and signs of wear. But it can cause significant damage to engine components if they break while the engine is running.

Replace fuel filter

It is identical to the oil filter, but junk from the fuel is filtered out, preventing entry into the combustion chamber. A new filter ensures that the fuel pump and engine have a free flow of clean fuel. This means that inside the engine there is less build-up and its thirst for fuel is quenched.

Replace spark plugs and wires

The spark plug serves as a starter for a fire. It ignites the air-fuel mixture in the cylinders and, due to its long life cycle, needs little maintenance. Daily maintenance can ensure that the spark is maintained by the engine. Often, they don’t even need a substitute. As a lot of soot gets deposited around the electrode over time, some cleaning can be of great benefit.

Good practices while driving a vehicle

Optimum air pressure in tyres

When you are driving, too much or too little air pressure can be dangerous. Make sure the levels of air pressure are as per the recommendations of the manufacturer. You will experience a less bouncy and healthy joyride if the air pressure in the tyres of your car is in line with the recommended levels. In addition, this will allow you to get decent mileage.

Seat belt mandatory while driving 4 wheeler

If the traffic rule says it is mandatory to wear seat belts, it is absolutely necessary because seat belts can help prevent accidents. While the accident occurs, the difference between the halting distance of a person wearing seat belt and the distance of a person not wearing seatbelt is important. Seat belts distribute the deceleration force in a uniform manner.

Wearing helmet while driving motorcycle

Helmets help to save the head, the most important part of the human body. The driver and other passengers appear to fall down from the two-wheeler when an accident happens and that might directly damage the brain.

Proper alignment of mirrors

Make sure the mirrors are correctly aligned, as it will help to provide a clear view of road conditions and other vehicles. Mirrors may also help understand the true distance between your vehicle and any object.

Avoid rash drive

It is a sensible idea to drive as per the speed recommended for the particular road as this can help achieve more mileage.

Usage of indicators lights while turning

Make sure the indicators are on while you are taking turns, as this can help avoid collision.

Wear drive-friendly clothes while driving

If you are driving, make sure that you are wearing protective clothing like covered shoes so that in case of any accident, you will get minimum injuries.

Follow the traffic rules

It is important for every driver to follow the traffic rules, as they are meant for the safety.

Make sure not to drink and drive

Alcohol and many other drugs can negatively impact the driving abilities, so one must not drink & drive. Many prescribed medicines too can cause severe drowsiness, and hence, those medicines too must be avoided.

Don’t talk on the mobile phones while driving

Do not get distracted while driving. Avoid talking on mobile phones and keep your head clear while driving.

Do not drive when you are excessively tired

Avoid driving when you are too tired. Avoid driving at a stretch, as this might make you excessively tired and you might end up risking your as well as others lives.

A vehicle with advanced safety features is the best vehicle

Make sure that cars with advanced safety equipment such as air bags etc. are operated so that when the car is bought, the vehicle can help save lives in the priority list during a major accident. In the event of a major accident, you can check online to find out what kind of safety feature is needed to help protect yourself and your family.

Be responsible and drive like an ethical driver

Unnecessary rash driving, abrupt braking, speeding up the car for no reason are just a few of the poor driving habits you need to get rid of. It will eat up the mileage of your vehicle and render life dangerous on the lane. Even if you are using high quality mineral or synthetic fuel oil, the mileage and engine condition of the car may be influenced by driving habits.

Bharat Stage 6 at a glance:

The Bharat Stage Emission Standards (BSES) are emission standards developed by the Government of India to regulate the performance of air pollutants, including motor vehicles, from compression ignition engines and Spark-ignition engines. The standards were first adopted in 2000, based on European regulations. Since then, increasingly strict norms have been carried out. All new vehicles produced after the requirements have been introduced must be regulatory compliant. Bharat Stage (BS) III norms have been implemented across the country since October 2010. Bharat Stage IV emission standards have been in effect in 13 major cities since April 2010 and have been implemented by the entire country since April 2017.

On 15 November 2017, in consultation with public oil marketing firms, the Ministry of Petroleum of India agreed to step forward the date for BS VI grade automotive fuels in the NCT of Delhi with effect from 1 April 2018 instead of 1 April 2020. In fact, from 1 April 2019, OMCs from the Petroleum Ministry were asked to explore the possibility of implementing BS VI auto fuels in the entire NCR region.

The phasing out of 2-stroke engine for two wheelers, the cessation of production of the Maruti 800, and the introduction of electronic controls have been due to the regulations related to vehicular emissions.

Exposure to air pollution, which is estimated to cause 620,000 early deaths in 2010, can lead to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and the health costs of air pollution in India have been measured at 3% of GDP.

Journey of changes emission norms in India

  • 1991 – Idle CO limits for petrol vehicles and free acceleration smoke for diesel vehicles, mass emission norms for petrol vehicles.
  • 1992 – Mass emission norms for diesel vehicles.
  • 1996 – Revision of mass emission norms for petrol and diesel vehicles, mandatory fitment of catalytic converter for cars in metros on unleaded petrol.
  • 1998 – Cold start norms introduced.
  • 2000 – India 2000 (equivalent to Euro I) norms, modified IDC (Indian driving cycle), Bharat Stage II norms for Delhi.
  • 2001 – Bharat Stage II (equivalent to Euro II) norms for all metros, emission norms for CNG and LPG vehicles.
  • 2003 – Bharat Stage II (equivalent to Euro II) norms for 13 major cities.
  • 2005 – From 1 April, Bharat Stage IV (equivalent to Euro IV norms for 13 major cities.
  • 2010 – Bharat Stage IV emission norms for 2-wheelers, 3-wheelers and 4-wheelers for the entire country, whereas Bharat Stage IV (equivalent to Euro IV) for 13 major cities for only 4-wheelers. Bharat Stage IV also has norms on OBD (similar to Euro III but diluted).
  • 2017 – Bharat Stage IV norms for all vehicles.
  • 2018 – Bharat Stage VI fuel norms from 1 April 2018 in Delhi instead of 2020.
  • 2020 – Bharat Stage VI fuel norms from 1 April 2020 nationwide switching India to world’s cleanest diesel and petrol.

Technology Changes in Petrol Engines


The emission of carbon monoxide is to be reduced by 30 percent and NOx by 80 percent, according to Bharat Stage-6 standards . The BS-6 standards have set limits for emissions of hydrocarbons and particulates, which were not defined in the previous standards. The carburetors in petrol engines must be replaced with programmed fuel injectors in order to meet the emission specifications of Bharat Stage-6.

Technology Changes in Diesel Engines

The NOx emissions from diesel engines are to be reduced by 70 percent and particulates by 80 percent as per the Bharat Stage-6 requirements. The engines need to be fitted with Euro-6 compliant technologies to accomplish this. The main technological modifications related to this are:

  1. Diesel Pre Fitting Filters in the exhaust system.
  2. Use methods of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) or Exhaust Gas Recirculation to reduce emissions of NOx.
    An on-board diagnostic device for tracking the malfunctioning of emission-related components.

Understanding Sulfur levels and Ash contents in lubes:

It has traditionally been used as an additive for an antioxidant, part of antiwear (AW) compounding, intense pressure (EP), and improved lubricity properties (the capacity of the oil to lubricate under boundary metal-to-metal contact conditions) when used in lubricating oil formulation chemistry.

Motor oil pollution regulations are the region of greatest change in limiting the quantity of sulfur permitted in today’s lubricants. Lubricating properties needed for fuel injectors and other engine components have been impacted by the reduction of fuel and engine oil by reducing the lubricating properties of those products. This requires new additive chemistry to fulfill the requirements for results.

Most of the sulfur used in formulated lubricating oils these days comes from the additives used. It is not inherently entirely gone, but the sulfur compound forms used in engine oils are changing and the amounts are decreasing. In order to meet regulatory limits, the reduction of sulfur in engine oils leading to metal ash forming emissions is needed.

A decrease in the content of sulfur in engine oils is often related to a decrease in the content of phosphorus. Changes in the allowable phosphorus level for engine oils are related to lower emission regulations. The efficiency of active catalyst sites used in exhaust after-treatment devices is reduced by phosphorus. The sulfur content in lubricating oils using zinc/phosphorus additives has been influenced by this.

These days, base oils add very little sulfur to engine oils. Base oils used to formulate engine oils in Classes II or III and IV have very little to no sulfur. Class II or III base oils are used in the majority of base oils used to manufacture lubricants for engine oils. In industrial lubricant applications, higher sulfur Group I base oils are more widely used, although some engine oil applications still exist.

The widespread use of sulfur reduction using Groups II or III base oil has the advantage of enabling formulators to regulate the sulfur additive compounding level and type in the finished lubricant product. This also decreases the presence of active sulfur in the base oils, which, when moisture and other chemicals are present, can form acids.

Low SAPS or low ash Engine oils

What is sulphated ash in engine oil?

The term sulfated ash refers to the quantity of metallic elements in engine oils, most of which are obtained from the detergent and anti-wear additive chemistry of the engine oil. Such additive packages include numerous metal-based materials, such as calcium, magnesium, zinc, etc.

Low ash refers to the quantity of hard material left behind when the oil burns.

Requirements are relatively recent for low-SAPS lubricants. It was only by adding catalytic converters or particulate filters that compliance with tighter emission requirements could be achieved. New types of motor oils with a low propensity to form ash deposits and less additives containing sulphur and phosphorus were needed for proper operation of these components.

Conventional high-performance motor oils have a high concentration of metallo-organic active substances, as shown by oil samples. The conventional wisdom for a long time was that the more a motor oil contained calcium, magnesium, boron, zinc, and (of course) phosphorous and sulphur, the higher its alkali reserve (BN), and thus the better the oil. The additives are what provide wear, after all.

Inevitably, the trend is headed towards increasing use of low-ash, low-SAPS oils. The standards of the Association des Constructeurs Européens d’Automobiles (ACEA) and the unique oils authorised by the manufacturers of vehicles also reflect this. The maximum ash content of 1.0 percent is approved for ACEA E6 engine oils for utility vehicles. ACEA C1 to C4 have also been taking this into account since 2004.







MASTERLINE LUBRICANTS PVT. LTD

Masterline is one of the fastest growing lubricants Company in India in branded segment. In 2002 Company entered in Indian market with complete range of automotive lubricants.

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